2023 and 2024 Tax Brackets and Federal Income Tax Rates

Your income each year determines which federal tax bracket you fall into and which of the seven income tax rates applies.
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Knowing your federal tax bracket is essential, as it determines your federal income tax rate for the year. 

There are seven different income tax rates: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%. Generally, these rates remain the same unless Congress passes new tax legislation. For instance, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, also known as the “Trump tax cuts,” temporarily lowered the highest tax rate to 37% until 2025, after which it will increase to 39.6%.  

So, which federal tax rate applies to your income depends on federal income tax brackets that do change because the beginning and ending income amounts for each tax bracket are adjusted yearly for inflation. What does that mean for you?  

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  • Inflation-adjusted tax brackets mean you could fall into a higher or lower tax bracket each year based on your income. 
  • Additionally, you may pay a different tax rate on your income one year than you did in the previous year or the following year.

Tax Brackets Overview

Federal tax brackets: Key points

Another important detail about federal tax brackets and associated income tax rates is that the rates are “marginal” tax rates. A marginal rate (discussed in greater detail below) is the tax rate you pay on an additional dollar of income.

For tax brackets and federal income tax rates, marginal tax rates mean that the rate associated with your tax bracket is the highest rate your taxable income will be subject to in a given tax year. 
  • As a result, all your income isn’t taxed at the tax rate tied to your tax bracket. 
  • And the highest applicable federal tax rate for your tax bracket only applies to a portion of your income. (The rest of your income gets taxed at a lower rate or rates.)

Also, some notes on inflation:

  • If your income hasn’t changed much since last year, you might still be in a lower tax bracket for 2023 because of the inflation adjustments. Your tax bracket might also change for 2024 (more on that below).
  • Inflation-adjusted tax brackets can help prevent “bracket creep,” which according to the , “occurs when people are pushed into higher income tax brackets or have reduced value from credits and deductions due to inflation, instead of any increase in real income."
  • So, when a tax bracket gets wider (i.e., there's more space between the high and low incomes for the bracket), there's less chance you will end up in a higher tax bracket when your income stays the same, or when it doesn't grow at the rate of inflation from one year to the next.

Federal tax brackets based on filing status

Tax bracket ranges also differ depending on your filing status. For example, for the 2023 tax year, the 22% tax bracket range for single filers is $44,726 to $95,375, while the same rate applies to head-of-household filers with taxable income from $59,851 to $95,350. However, previously for single filers, the 22% tax bracket started at $41,776 and ended at $89,075. However, for head-of-household filers, the previous tax year's bracket went from $55,901 to $89,050.So, with all of that in mind, here are the tax brackets for 2023 and 2024. Further below, we consider some examples of how income tax brackets and marginal tax rates work.

2023 Federal Tax Brackets

2023 income tax brackets

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Here are the 2023 federal tax brackets and income tax rates for the four most common filing statuses. 
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2023 Tax Brackets: Single Filers and Married Couples Filing Jointly
Tax RateTaxable Income
(Single)
Taxable Income
(Married Filing Jointly)
10%Up to $11,000Up to $22,000
12%$11,001 to $44,725$22,001 to $89,450
22%$44,726 to $95,375$89,451 to $190,750
24%$95,376 to $182,100$190,751 to $364,200
32%$182,101 to $231,250$364,201 to $462,500
35%$231,251 to $578,125$462,501 to $693,750
37%Over $578,125Over $693,750

Swipe to scroll horizontally
2023 Tax Brackets: Married Couples Filing Separately and Head-of-Household Filers
Tax RateTaxable Income
(Married Filing Separately)
Taxable Income
(Head of Household)
10%Up to $11,000Up to $15,700
12%$11,001 to $44,725$15,701 to $59,850
22%$41,726 to $95,375$59,851 to $95,350
24%$95,376 to $182,100$95,351 to $182,100
32%$182,101 to $231,250$182,201 to $231,250
35%$231,251 to $346,875$231,251 to $578,100
37%Over $346,875Over $578,100

2024 Federal Tax Brackets

Tax brackets 2024

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Managing your finances in a tax-efficient way requires planning. 

Here are the inflation-adjusted tax brackets for the 2024 tax year (returns filed in April 2025).

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2024 Tax Brackets: Single Filers and Married Couples Filing Jointly
Tax RateTaxable Income (Single)Taxable Income (Married Filing Jointly)
10%Not over $11,600 Not over $23,200
12%Over $11,600 but not over $47,150 Over $23,200 but not over $94,300
22%Over $47,150 but not over $100,525 Over $94,300 but not over $201,050
24%Over $100,525 but not over $191,950 Over $201,050 but not over $383,900
32%Over $191,950 but not over $243,725 Over $383,900 but not over $487,450
35%Over $243,725 but not over $609,350 Over $487,450 but not over $731,200
37%Over $609,350 Over $731,200

Swipe to scroll horizontally
2024 Tax Brackets: Married Couples Filing Separately and Head of Household Filers
Tax RateTaxable Income (Married Filing Separately)Taxable Income (Head of Household))
10%Up to $11,600Not over $16,550
12%Over $11,600 but not over $47,150 Over $16,550 but not over $63,100
22%Over $47,150 but not over $100,525 Over $63,100 but not over $100,500
24%Over $100,525 but not over $191,950 Over $100,500 but not over $191,950
32%Over $191,950 but not over $243,725 Over $191,950 but not over $243,700
35%Over $243,725 but not over $365,600 Over $243,700 but not over $609,350
37%Over $365,600 Over $609,350

How Tax Brackets Work

Marginal tax rate definition: How do tax brackets work?

Now that you've seen the tax brackets for 2023 and 2024, let's delve into some examples to show how the brackets and income tax rates work.Suppose your filing status is single, and you have $100,000 taxable income in 2023. You might think that since $100,000 falls into the 24% federal bracket, your tax would be a flat $24,000. But thankfully, that’s not the case. Instead, your $100,000 will be taxed at a marginal tax rate so that only some of your income is taxed at the maximum rate for your income that year (24%). The rest of your income is taxed at the federal income rates below 24%, i.e., 10%, 12%, and 22%.Here’s how the marginal tax rate works with this example:
  • The first $11,000 of your income is taxed at the 10% rate.
  • The next $33,724 of your income (i.e., the amount from $11,001 to $44,725, which will make sense when you see the tax brackets below) is taxed at the 12% federal rate.
  • The following $50,649 of your income (from $44,726 to $95,375) is taxed at the 22% federal tax rate.
  • That leaves $4,627 of your taxable income (the amount over $95,373) that is taxed at the 24% rate for your federal tax bracket.
Given marginal tax rates, the estimated total federal tax on your $100,000 of taxable income would be about $17,400. That is $6,600 less than if a flat 24% federal tax rate applied to your entire $100,000 of income. 

Remember: We're talking about federal tax. State tax rates and amounts due, if any, will vary. 

The chart below shows estimates of how much of your income would be taxed at each rate.
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Income PortionFederal Rate AppliedApprox. Amount of Tax
First $11,00010%$1,100
$33,72412%$4,047
$50,64922%$11,143
$4,62724%$1,110

Total Estimated Tax: $17, 400

Here’s an illustration to help show how the marginal tax rate works with this example.

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Take another example of someone single with a taxable income for the 2023 tax year of $40,000. You might think your tax would be $4,800 since $40,000 falls into the 12% federal bracket. But that’s not the case. Instead, your $40,000 will get taxed at a marginal tax rate, so only some of your income is taxed at the maximum tax rate for your income that year (12%). The rest of your income gets taxed at the federal income rate below 12%, i.e.,10%.Here’s how the marginal tax rate works with this example:
  • The first $11,000 of your income is taxed at the 10% tax rate.
  • The next $28,999 of your income (i.e., the income between $11,001 to $44,725, which will make sense when you see the tax brackets below) gets taxed at the 12% federal rate.
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Income PortionFederal Tax Rate AppliedApprox. Amount of Tax
First $11,00010%$1,100
$28,99912%$3,479
The total estimated federal tax of $4,580 is still a bit ($220) lower than the $4,800 you would be taxed if a flat 12% federal rate applied to your $40,000 of income. The chart below shows estimates of how much of your income would be taxed at each rate. 

Note: We're talking about federal tax. State tax rates and amounts due, if any, will vary.

Total Estimated Tax: $4,579

Here’s an illustration to help show how the marginal tax rate works with this example.

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Marginal tax rate vs. effective tax rate

It's important to know that the marginal tax rate and your effective tax rate differ. As mentioned, the marginal tax rate is the percentage of tax applied to the next dollar of income. On the other hand, the effective tax rate is the overall percentage of income an individual pays in taxes after considering all deductions, exemptions, and credits.To calculate your effective tax rate, divide the total taxes paid by the total taxable income. For example, if an individual earned $50,000 and paid $7,000 in taxes, their effective tax rate would be 14% ($7,000 / $50,000 = 0.14 or 14%).

If you have any questions about your tax liability, it's always a good idea to seek advice from a qualified tax professional or financial advisor.

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Senior Tax Editor, 49ermike.com
As the senior tax editor at 49ermike.com, Kelley R. Taylor simplifies federal and state tax information, news, and developments to help empower readers. Kelley has over two decades of experience advising on and covering education, law, finance, and tax as a corporate attorney and business journalist.